Article 2: The National Council of Washiwa and the Lord of Washiwa jointly exercise legislative power. The Lord and other governmental authorities referred to in this Constitution and elsewhere in the law exercise executive power. Judges exercise judicial power.
Article 3: The Lord of Washiwa rules for life, unless they choose to retire. When the Lord of Washiwa dies or retires, the next Lord shall be elected by the people.
Article 4: Any person who is at least thirty-five years of age and has at least two years of military training, with the exception of non-native Washiwans, is eligible to be elected Lord.
Article 5: The Lord shall be elected by direct, secret ballot of those who are eligible to vote for the Lord of Washiwa. A candidate shall be proposed by not less than 150,000. The candidate, if there is more than one, who receives the most votes is duly elected Lord. If there is only one candidate, he is duly elected without a vote.
Further provision for the candidature and election of the Lord shall be made by law, and it may be provided that a specific number of proposers shall reside in each quarter of the country in proportion to the number of voters there.
Article 6: If the Office of Lord of the Free Land becomes vacant or if the Lord is unable to perform their duties due to a stay abroad, illness, or other reasons, the Co Consul, the President of the National Council of Washiwa and the President of the Supreme Court shall exercise authority comparable to that of the Lord. The President of the National Council of Washiwa shall preside at their meetings. In a divergence of opinion among them, the majority shall prevail.
Article 7: Members of the National Council of Washiwa are appointed by the Lord.
Article 8: It is not allowed for members of the National Council of Washiwa to accept paid employment in the interest of any public institution or private enterprise.
Disbursements from State funds to the Lord or those who exercise authority comparable to that of the Lord shall be established by law. These disbursements to the Lord may not be reduced during their time in office.
Article 9: On assuming office, the Lord shall take an oath or pledge to uphold the Constitution. Two identical originals shall be executed of this oath or pledge. One shall be kept by the National Council of Washiwa and the other by the National Archives.
Article 10: The Lord of the Free Land may not be held accountable for executive acts. The same applies to those who exercise authority comparable to that of the Lord.
The Lord may not be prosecuted on a criminal charge except with the consent of the National Council of Washiwa.
The Lord may be removed from office before they die/choose to retire if approved by a majority in a plebiscite called pursuant to a resolution adopted by three-fourths of the Washiwan population. This plebiscite shall be held within two months from the date of adoption by the Supreme Court of the resolution. The Lord shall not perform their duties from the time the resolution is adopted by the Supreme Court until the results of the plebiscite are known.
If the resolution by the Supreme Court is not approved in the plebiscite, the Supreme Court shall be immediately dissolved and a new one appointed.
Article 11: The Lord of the Free Land shall reside in or near Washiwa City.
Article 12: The Lord entrusts their authority to Ministers.
The seat of Government is in Washiwa City.
Article 13: Ministers are accountable for all executive acts. The accountability of the Ministers is established by law. The Lord may impeach Ministers on account of their official acts. The Court of Impeachment has competence in such cases.
Article 14: The National Council of Washiwa, composing of the Lord and ministers is presided over by the Lord.
Laws and important government measures shall be submitted to the Lord of Washiwa.
Article 15: Ministerial meetings shall be held in order to discuss new legislative proposals and important State matters. Furthermore, ministerial meetings shall be held if a Minister wishes to raise a matter there. The meetings shall be presided over by the Minister called upon by the Lord of the Free Land to do so, who is designated Co Consul.
Article 16: The Minister who has signed a measure shall, as a rule, submit it to the Lord.
Article 17: The signature of the Lord validates a legislative act or government measure when countersigned by the Minister who proposed the legislative act.
Article 18: The Lord appoints public officials as provided by law.
No person may hold public office unless he has Washiwan nationality. Each public official shall take an oath or pledge to uphold the Constitution.
The Lord may remove from office any official whom he has appointed.
The Lord may transfer officials from one office to another provided that their official remuneration is not reduced, and that they have an option between such transfer and retirement with a pension, or old-age benefits, as prescribed by law.
Certain categories of officials, may be exempted by law from this provision
Article 19: The Lord of the Free Land concludes treaties with other States. Unless approved by the National Council of Washiwa, they may not make such treaties if they entail renouncement of, or servitude on, territory or territorial waters, or if they require changes in the State system.
Article 20: The Lord of the Free Land shall convene the National Council of Washiwa not later than ten weeks after appointing each minister. The Lord opens regular sessions of the National Council of Washiwa each year.
Article 21: The Lord of the Free Land may adjourn sessions of the National Council of Washiwa for a limited period of time, but not exceeding two weeks nor more than once a year. the National Council of Washiwa may, however, authorize the Lord to deviate from this provision.
If sessions of the National Council of Washiwa have been adjourned, the Lord of the Free Land may nevertheless convene the National Council of Washiwa as deemed necessary. Moreover, the Lord is obliged to do so upon the request of a majority of the Members of the National Council of Washiwa.
Article 22: The Lord of the Free Land may dissolve the National Council of Washiwa. A new council or absolute leadership can only take place 45 days after the announcement of the dissolution. The National Council of Washiwa shall convene not later than 30 days after the dissolution announcement. Members of the National Council of Washiwa shall retain their mandate until discharged.
Article 23: The Lord of the Free Land may have bills and draft resolutions submitted to the National Council of Washiwa.
Article 24: If the National Council of Washiwa has passed a bill, it shall be submitted to the Lord of the Free Land for confirmation not later than two weeks after it has been passed. Such confirmation gives it the force of law. If the Lord rejects a bill, it shall nevertheless become void.
Article 25: All laws shall be published. The form of publication and the implementation of laws shall be in accordance with law.
Article 26: In case of urgency, the Lord may issue provisional laws when the National Council of Washiwa is not in session. Such laws must not, however, be contrary to the Constitution. They shall always be submitted to the National Council of Washiwa as soon as it convenes.
If 70% of the National Council of Washiwa does not approve a provisional law, or if it does not complete its consideration of the law within six weeks after convening, the law shall become void.
A provisional budget may not be issued if the National Council of Washiwa has passed the budget for the fiscal year.
Article 27: The Lord may decide that the prosecution for an offense be discontinued if there are strong reasons therefor. The Lord grants pardon and amnesty. However, he may not absolve a Minister from prosecution or from a punishment imposed by the Court of Impeachment, unless approved by the National Council of Washiwa.
Article 28: The Lord, or other governmental authorities entrusted by the Lord, grants exemptions from laws in accordance with established practice.
Article 29: The National Council of Washiwa shall be composed of 23 members, with one seat being reserved for the Lord.
Article 30: Sessions of the National Council of Washiwa are held in one chamber.
Article 31: All persons who, on the date of an election, are 18 years of age or older and have Washiwan nationality have the right to vote in for a new Lord. Permanent domicile in Washiwa, on the date of an election, is also a requirement for voting, unless exceptions from this rule are stipulated in the law on elections for a new Lord.
Article 32: Every national having the right to vote in elections for a new Lord, has one year of military experience and an unblemished reputation is eligible to be appointed to the National Council of Washiwa.
Supreme Court Judges, however, are not eligible.
Article 33: The National Council of Washiwa shall convene for a regular session every year on the 1st of October or, if the day falls on an official holiday, on the following weekday, and continue in session until the same date the following year, unless the election period of Members of the National Council of Washiwa has elapsed earlier or the National Council of Washiwa has been dissolved.
The opening date of the regular session of the National Council of Washiwa may be changed by law.
Article 34: The National Council of Washiwa is inviolate. No person may disturb its peace or violate its freedom.
Article 35: The National Council of Washiwa shall normally convene in Washiwa City, but under special circumstances the Lord of the Free Land may order that the National Council of Washiwa convene at another place in Washiwa.
Article 36: Members of the National Council of Washiwa and Ministers are entitled to introduce bills and draft resolutions.
Article 37: The National Council of Washiwa may appoint committees of its Members in order to investigate important matters of public interest. The National Council of Washiwa may grant authority to such committees to request reports, oral or written, from officials as well as from individuals.
Article 38: No tax may be imposed, altered or abolished except by law. Nor may loans, indebting the State, be taken or any real estate belonging to the State or the use thereof sold or in any other way disposed of, except by authority in law.
Article 39: No disbursement may be made unless authorized in the budget or the supplementary budget.
Article 40: A budget proposal for the coming fiscal year, containing a report on the revenue and expenditure of the State, shall be submitted to each regular session of the National Council of Washiwa upon it being convened.
Article 41: The financial accounts of the State, its institutions and administrative bodies, shall be subject to an audit by, or under the supervision of the National Council of Washiwa, as provided by law.
Article 42: No bill may be passed until it has received three readings in the National Council of Washiwa.
Article 43: The Lord decides whether the National Council of Washiwa's Members are legally appointed and also whether a Member has lost eligibility for appointment to the National Council of Washiwa.
Article 44: Each new Member of the National Council of Washiwa shall take a pledge to uphold the Constitution when their appointment has been approved.
Article 45: Members of the National Council of Washiwa are bound solely by their conviction and not by any instructions from their constituents.
Article 46: No Member of the National Council of Washiwa may be subjected to custody on remand during a session of the National Council of Washiwa without the consent of the Lord, nor may a criminal action be brought against them unless they are caught in the act of committing a crime.
No Member of the National Council of Washiwa may be held accountable outside the National Council of Washiwa for statements made by them in the National Council of Washiwa, except with the consent of the Lord.
Article 47: If a Member of the National Council of Washiwa loses eligibility for appointment to the National Council of Washiwa, they forfeits the rights to vote for a new Lord.
Article 48: Ministers are entitled to a seat in the National Council of Washiwa and, by virtue of their office, have the right to participate in its debates as often as they may desire, but they must observe the rules of procedure. They have the right to vote only if they are at the same time Members of the National Council of Washiwa.
Article 49: The Lord appoints a Co Consul, who may be given authority comparable to that of the Lord, shall the Lord be unable to perform their duties.
Article 50: The National Council of Washiwa may not take a decision unless a quorum of more than half of its Members, as well as the Lord are present at the meeting and take part in the voting.
Article 51: Each Member of the National Council of Washiwa may request, subject to the permission of the Lord, information from a Minister or an answer regarding a public matter, by tabling a question or requesting a report.
Article 52: The National Council of Washiwa may not admit for consideration any matter unless introduced by one of its Members or a Minister.
Article 53: Should the National Council of Washiwa not find cause to take a decision on a given matter it can refer it to a Minister.
Article 54: Meetings of the National Council of Washiwa shall be held in public. Nevertheless, the Co Consul, or the quorum stipulated by the rules of procedure, may request that all those not Members of the National Council of Washiwa be excluded. The meeting shall then decide whether the matter shall be debated in a public or a closed session.
Article 55: The rules of procedure of the National Council of Washiwa shall be determined by law.
Article 56: The organization of the judiciary can only be established by law.
Article 57: Judges settle all disputes regarding the competence of the authorities. No one seeking a ruling thereon can, however, temporarily evade obeying an order from the authorities by submitting the matter for a judicial decision.
Article 58: In the performance of their official duties, judges shall be guided solely by the law. Those judges who do not also have administrative functions cannot be discharged from office except by a judicial decision, nor may they be transferred to another office against their will, except in the event of re-organization of the judiciary. However, a judge who has reached the age of 65 may be released from office, but Judges of the Supreme Court shall not lose any of their salary.
Article 59: The Washiwan state shall not have a state religion and, as such, no religion shall gain unfair support and protection by the State.
This may be amended by law.
Article 60: All persons have the right to form religious associations and to practice their religion in conformity with their individual convictions. Nothing may however be preached or practiced which is prejudicial to good morals or public order.
Article 61: No one may lose any of his civil or national rights on account of their religion, nor may anyone refuse to perform any generally applicable civil duty on religious grounds.
Everyone shall be free to remain outside religious associations. No one shall be obliged to pay any personal dues to any religious association of which he is not a member.
A person who is not a member of any religious association shall pay to the University of Washiwa the dues that they would have had to pay to such an association, if they had been a member. This may be amended by law.
Article 62: Everyone shall be equal before the law and enjoy human rights irrespective of sex, religion, opinion, race, skin colour, property, birth or other status.
Men and women shall enjoy equal rights in all respects.
Article 63: No one may be deprived of Washiwan citizenship. Loss of citizenship may, however, be provided for by law, in the event a person accepts citizenship in another State. An alien can only be granted Washiwan citizenship according to law.
A Washiwan citizen cannot be barred from entering Washiwa nor expelled there from.
The restrictions for aliens to enter and reside in Washiwa, and the reasons for which they may be expelled, shall be laid down by law.
No one may be barred from leaving Washiwa except by judicial decision. A person may however be prevented from leaving Washiwa by lawful arrest.
Every person lawfully residing in Washiwa shall be free to choose their residence and shall enjoy freedom of travel subject to any limitations laid down by law.
Article 64: No one may be deprived of their liberty except as permitted by law.
Any person deprived of their liberty shall be entitled to be informed promptly of the reasons for this measure.
Any person arrested by reason of suspicion of criminal conduct shall be brought before a judge without undue delay. If they are not released at once, the judge shall, within 24 hours, issue a reasoned decision on whether they shall be detained on remand. Detention on remand may only be ordered due to a charge subject to heavier sanctions than fines or punitive custody. The right of a person detained on remand to refer the decision on their remand to a superior court shall be guaranteed by law. A person shall never be detained on remand for longer than necessary; if the judge deems that they may be released on bail the amount of bail shall be determined by a judicial order.
Any person deprived of their liberty for other reasons shall be entitled to have the legality of the measure reviewed by a court as soon as possible. If their deprivation of liberty proves to have been unlawful they shall be released forthwith.
Any person deprived of their liberty without valid reason shall have a right to compensation.
Article 65: No one may be subjected to torture or any other inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
No one shall be required to perform compulsory labour.
Article 66: No one may be subjected to punishment unless found guilty of conduct that constituted a criminal offence according to the law at the time when it was committed, or is totally analogous to such conduct. The sanctions may not be more severe than the law permitted at the time of commission.
Death penalty may be stipulated by law.
Article 67: Everyone shall, for the determination of their rights and obligations or in the event of a criminal charge against them, be entitled, following a fair trial and within a reasonable time, to the resolution of an independent and impartial court of law. A hearing by a court of law shall take place in public, except if the judge decides otherwise as provided for by law in the interest of morals, public order, the security of the State or the interests of the parties.
Everyone charged with criminal conduct shall be presumed innocent until proven guilty.
Article 68: Everyone shall enjoy freedom from interference with privacy, home, and family life.
Bodily or personal search or a search of a personís premises or possessions may only be conducted in accordance with a judicial decision or a statutory law provision. This shall also apply to the examination of documents and mail, communications by telephone and other means, and to any other comparable interference with a personís right to privacy.
Notwithstanding the provisions of the first paragraph above, freedom from interference with privacy, home and family life may be otherwise limited by statutory provisions if this is urgently necessary for the protection of the rights of others.
Article 69: The right of private ownership shall be inviolate. No one may be obliged to surrender their property unless required by public interests. Such a measure shall be provided for by law, and full compensation shall be paid.
The right of foreign parties to own real property interests or shares in business
enterprises in Washiwa may be limited by law.
Article 70: Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and belief.
Everyone shall be free to express his thoughts, but shall also be liable to answer for them in court. The law may never provide for censorship or other similar limitations to freedom of expression.
Freedom of expression may only be restricted by law in the interests of public order or the security of the State, for the protection of health or morals, or for the protection of the rights or reputation of others, if such restrictions are deemed necessary and in agreement with Washiwan traditions.
Article 71: Associations may be formed without prior permission for any lawful purpose, including political associations, but not trade unions. An association may dissolved by administrative decision. The activities of an association found to be in furtherance of unlawful objectives will either be dissolved on the spot or legal action shall be brought without undue delay for a judgment dissolving the association.
No one may be obliged to be a member of any association. Membership of an association may however be made obligatory by law if this is necessary in order to enable an association to discharge its functions in the public interest or on account of the rights of others.
People are free to assemble unarmed. Public gatherings may be attended by police. Public gatherings in the open may be banned if it is feared that riots may ensue.
Article 72: Everyone is free to pursue the occupation of his choosing. This right may however be restricted by law, if such restriction is required with regard to the public interest.
The right of people to negotiate terms of employment and other labour-related matters shall be regulated by law.
Article 73: The law shall guarantee for everyone the necessary assistance in case of sickness, invalidity, infirmity by reason of old age, unemployment and similar circumstances.
The law shall guarantee for everyone suitable general education and tuition.
For children, the law shall guarantee the protection and care which is necessary for their well-being.
Article 74: Matters concerning taxes shall be regulated by law. The power to decide whether to levy a tax, change a tax or abolish a tax may not be vested in administrative authorities.
No tax may be levied unless the levy was permitted by law at the time when the facts occurred on which the tax liability is based.
Article 75: Proposals to amend or supplement this Constitution may be introduced at regular as well as extraordinary sessions of the National Council of Washiwa. If the proposal is adopted, the national Council of Washiwa shall immediately be dissolved and new council members will be appointed. If the National Council of Washiwa then passes the resolution unchanged, it shall be confirmed by the Lord of the Free Land and come into force as constitutional law.
If the National Council of Washiwa passes an amendment to the status of religions under Article 59, it shall be submitted to a vote for approval or rejection by secret ballot of all those eligible to vote.